Promethazine

Uses of promethazine

Promethazine is used for the symptomatic treatment of allergies such as hay fever, hives, immediate treatment of anaphylactic reactions, treatment of nausea, dizziness, labyrinth disorders, travel sickness, and anesthetic drug.

Pharmacodynamics

Promethazine is an antihistamine with anticholinergic, sleep-inducing, anti-nausea and some local anesthetic effects and works by blocking histamine, which is an allergen in the body.
Other effects of this drug such as (anti-nausea, sedative and analgesic) may be applied through mediators such as acetylcholine and by direct effect on specific parts of the brain.

Pharmacokinetics

On average, 88% of the oral dose is absorbed, but its bioavailability is only 25% due to the phenomenon of the first pass in the liver.
Promethazine hydrochloride is metabolized in the liver and its metabolites are excreted through urine.
The half-life of the drug is between 16 and 19 hours.

Uses of promethazine

Runny nose, sedative, hypnotic, allergic reaction, motion sickness, itching, sneezing, itchy skin rashes, nausea, vomiting and pain after surgery.

Dosage

adults :

– Usual dose in allergic reactions, allergic rhinitis, anaphylaxis and urticaria:
6.25 to 12.5 mg orally or rectally before meals and at bedtime or 25 mg orally or rectally at bedtime.
Injection: 25 mg intramuscularly or intravenously as a single dose to be repeated after 2 hours if needed.
– Usual dose for sedation and sleep:
25 to 50 mg oral or rectal as a single dose

Injectable:

Early stages of labor: 50 mg intramuscularly or intravenously
Nocturnal sleep: 25 to 50 mg intramuscularly or intravenously
– Usual dose in motion sickness:

treatment :

Oral: first 25 mg oral or rectal, then 12.5 to 25 mg every 4 to 6 hours depending on the need
• Injection: 12.5 to 25 mg intramuscularly or intravenously every 4 hours

prevention :

25 mg orally or rectal 30 to 60 minutes before movement, then every 8 to 12 hours as needed
– Usual dose for nausea and vomiting:
Treatment: 12.5 to 25 mg intramuscular, intravenous, oral or rectal every 4 hours if necessary.
Prevention: 25 mg orally every 4 to 6 hours

Children over two years old:

– Usual dose in allergic reactions: 6.25 to 12.5 mg orally or rectally before meals and at bedtime or 25 mg orally or rectally at bedtime.
– Usual dose in motion sickness:
Prevention and treatment: 12.5 to 25 mg oral or rectal twice a day
– Usual dose for nausea and vomiting:

treatment :

Oral: 1.1 mg/kg orally or rectally every 4 to 6 hours (maximum 25 mg)
Intravenous: 6.25 to 12.5 mg intramuscularly or intravenously every 4 hours
Prevention: up to 25 mg oral or rectal every 4 to 6 hours
– Usual dose for anesthesia before surgery: 1.1 mg/kg oral or rectal

prohibited usage

Intestinal obstruction, angle-closure glaucoma, bone marrow suppression, liver problems, sleep apnea, Parkinson-like symptoms, types of seizures, heart problems, lung problems, prostate enlargement, coma, chronic constipation.

side effects

Nausea, headache, insomnia, dry mouth, confusion, blurred vision, tremors, jaundice, sensitivity to light, asthma, hallucinations, fatigue, vomiting, loss of balance, ringing in the ears.

Drug interactions

Acetylcholine, busulfan, amiodarone, iopamidol, bupropion, potassium chloride, topiramate, zonisamide, quinidine. Quinidine, vandetanib, murafenib, propoxyphene, sotalol, citalopram, fingolimod, moxifloxacin, nilotinib, sc-citalopram, tretinoin, metoclopramide, peg interferon alpha 2b, potassium citrate, sodium oxybate, procainamide, sparfloxacin, droperidol, doxeltron (Ami). Pak), apomorphine, mefloquine, indapamide, dofetilide, bepridil, arsenic trioxide, grepafloxacin, halofantrine, bedaquiline, glycopyrronium tosylate.

Warnings

• Promethazine should not be used in children under two years of age due to the possibility of causing respiratory problems or death.
• If you have a history of allergy to this drug or other phenothiazines such as chlorpromazine, avoid taking the drug.
If you have any of the following problems, consult your doctor before use:
• Asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), sleep apnea and other breathing problems, history of seizures, weak immune system, glaucoma, prostate enlargement or difficulty urinating, stomach ulcer or gastrointestinal tract obstruction, heart problems or high blood pressure, liver problems, Pheochromocytoma, hypocalcemia.

Recommended tips

• Promethazine is usually taken before meals or at bedtime.
• For motion sickness, it is usually taken one hour before moving and during surgery, one night before the operation.
• In case of involuntary movements of the eyes, lips, tongue, face, or hands and feet, stop taking the medicine and see a doctor immediately. These symptoms may be the beginning of dangerous side effects.

Use in pregnancy

C (Group C drugs should only be used with a doctor’s prescription. The risks of using this group of drugs have not yet been ruled out, or human studies have not been conducted, and when the doctor feels that the benefits of using this group of drugs outweigh the possible harms. It is much more, and its consumption is necessary for the patient to prescribe.)

Similar drugs

Trifluprazine, diphenhydramine, cyproheptadine, hydroxyzine, chlorpromazine, chlorpheniramine, chloral hydrate, terfenadine, bepotastine, diphenhydramine compound, azatadine, carbinoxamine, methylazine, phenydamine, pyrilamine (mepyramine), triflupromazine, trimerazine, triple enamine, triprolidine.

Was this helpful?

0 / 0

Leave a Reply 0

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *