Uses of procaine
Procaine hydrochloride is a paraaminobenzoic esteride and a local anesthetic. Due to its low penetration into healthy mucous membranes, it is not effective for the surface and is mainly used as an injection, although it has generally been replaced by lidocaine and other local anesthetics. Its onset is slow and its effect is short. It has vasodilating activity and a vasoconstrictor can be prescribed to delay its absorption and increase its duration of activity. Procaine is mainly used for peripheral nerve block and spinal block. It is also used in cardioplegic solutions to protect the myocardium during heart surgery. For anesthesia, 0.25 or 0.5% solutions of procaine hydrochloride with a dose of 350 to 600 mg are used. In dentistry, procaine is used in combination with propoxycaine. Procaine conjugates with other drugs or forms low-soluble salts, such as penicillin, to increase their activity time after injection. It can also reduce injection pain. Percaine N-glucoside hydrochloride is used for gastrointestinal disorders.
Pharmacokinetics of procaine
Procaine is poorly absorbed from mucous membranes and is usually given orally. It is rapidly hydrolyzed by plasma cholinesterase to para-aminobenzoic acid and diethylaminoethanol and is also metabolized to some extent by the liver. Only about 6% binds to plasma proteins. About 80% of it is excreted unchanged or conjugated in the urine. About 30% of diethylaminoethanol is excreted in the urine and the rest is metabolized in the liver.
Side effects of procaine
Negative side effects of local anesthetics manifest as neuromuscular complications such as prolonged anesthesia or paralysis.
The risks in this method can be temporary or permanent, depending on the type and location of the nerve damage
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