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What is Metformin?

Metformin is used to lower blood sugar in patients with type 2 diabetes
Metformin is used to treat non-insulin dependent diabetes. It is especially used to treat non-insulin dependent diabetic patients who have not responded to diet and also in overweight patients.

Metformin and its relationship to insulin

Insulin is a hormone that is naturally produced in the body in the pancreas
This hormone helps control blood sugar (glucose) levels. When your body does not produce enough insulin or if the insulin made in your body does not work properly, your body is in a situation where your blood sugar is not controlled. This condition is called diabetes mellitus or diabetes mellitus.
People with diabetes need treatment to control their blood sugar levels. Proper blood sugar control reduces the risk of complications from diabetes (nerve damage, vision problems, kidney damage, etc.) In mild cases, with a proper diet, blood sugar levels can be controlled; But in other people with diabetes, treatment with medications such as metformin along with a proper diet can be effective in controlling blood sugar.
Metformin allows the body to maximize the use of insulin in the body to reduce blood sugar in type 2 diabetes in the absence of insulin production. It can be given alone or with other anti-diabetic medicines or with insulin.
Metformin is an anti-diabetic drug from the group of non-guanidine drugs that can control type 2 diabetes by lowering blood sugar; It can also reduce the risk of developing overweight people who are prone to diabetes.
It can also be prescribed to children over 10 years of age alone or in combination with other anti-diabetic drugs and insulin. This medicine may be prescribed for a period of time in cases other than diabetes.

Before taking metformin

Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or trying to become pregnant or breast-feeding.
Tell your blood doctor if you have a history of kidney, liver, respiratory or drug allergies.
Because this drug can interfere with the function of other drugs in the body, it is necessary to list all of your medications (especially other medications that you have used to treat depression and sleep in the last month) before you start taking them. Ask your doctor or pharmacist.
Tell your doctor if you have been photographed with a dye injection in the last two days.
Tell your doctor if your diabetes has not been under control recently (for example, you have severe hypoglycemia or symptoms such as nausea, diarrhea, severe weight loss and respiratory problems, etc.).
Be sure to tell your doctor if you have a recent severe infection, such as a lung or kidney infection.
Be sure to tell your doctor if you are being treated with heart medication or have recently had a heart attack.
Alcohol consumption during treatment with this drug can increase the likelihood of side effects from this drug.
Talk to your therapist about this medication if you need surgery or any clinical trials; Because it may be necessary to stop taking this drug before and after some surgeries.

How to take Metformin

Take metformin exactly as your doctor advised; Your doctor may start with a small amount of medication first and then gradually increase the amount and number of turns of medication to get your body used to the changes made by the medication and reduce the risk of side effects.
– Try to take the drug regularly and at certain times of the day. It is recommended to take metformin with the main meal or after a snack.

– If you forget to take a dose, take it immediately after the reminder, unless the reminder time is close to the next dose. In this case, do not take the missed dose and take the next dose on time, but to Never double the dose.

Metformin recommendations

Monitored during treatment with this drug. Stay with your doctor and get regular checkups and checkups regularly.
Because high blood sugar can have serious ocular complications, be sure to have regular eye examinations to prevent such complications.
High blood sugar leads to damage to nerves (especially the nerve endings of the limbs); This causes the patient to feel less pain, trauma or cuts, etc., and any injury, and as a result, the wound or injury caused spreads and becomes infected. Diabetes also slows down tissue repair; Therefore, use wide front shoes that are suitable for your foot size as much as possible. Wash your feet every night and inform your doctor about the condition of your body in case of bruising, sores, swelling or redness, especially in the legs, and take the necessary care every day until the wound heals completely.
This drug may increase the risk of pregnancy by altering the menstrual cycle, and women of childbearing age should consider this during medication with metformin-containing compounds.
Follow your doctor’s advice about proper diet, smoking cessation, and physical activity.
In general, medication with anti-diabetic drugs may cause symptoms of hypoglycemia in the patient. Therefore, it is better for diabetics to always consider the symptoms of hypoglycemia (cold sweats, palpitations, tremors, restlessness and severe weakness, blurred vision and dizziness) and the necessary recommendations to deal with hypoglycemia (hypoglycemia). Find your doctor or pharmacist.

If you start any treatment or intend to have surgery, inform your therapist about taking this medicine.
Consult your doctor and get the necessary recommendations before starting any new exercise activity that affects your blood sugar level.
Tell your doctor if you feel excessive thirst, frequent urination, and tiredness, as these symptoms may be due to high blood sugar.
Diabetes treatment is usually continued throughout a person’s life, so continue taking the medication until your doctor recommends it.

Metformin in pregnancy

Metformin can be especially helpful in treating diabetes and PCOS during pregnancy. If you have diabetes, it is important to maintain healthy blood sugar levels during pregnancy. Metformin during pregnancy reduces your risk of complications from diabetes and will help you reduce your risk of birth defects and other pregnancy complications.
If you have PCOS, taking metformin before pregnancy can make a big difference in your condition and can actually help you get pregnant. PCOS makes it harder for you to get pregnant because it can cause irregular menstruation and the growth of small cysts in your ovaries, as well as prevent ovulation. If you do not ovulate, there are no eggs to fertilize and therefore there will be no pregnancy.
Metformin can help improve your ovulation and increase your chances of getting pregnant. Metformin after pregnancy can reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. It can also help you lose the extra weight you gained from PCOS.
Now that you know that metformin is good for both type 2 diabetes and PCOS, you will be happy to know that it is generally safe to take during pregnancy. Fortunately, metformin is not associated with an increased risk of birth defects or other complications.
So if you were taking metformin before pregnancy, your doctor may encourage you to continue taking it during pregnancy. However, the first line of treatment for gestational diabetes is insulin. Your doctor will prescribe medication based on your personal medical history and what they think is best for your health and that of your fetus.
Even if you did not take metformin before pregnancy, your doctor may prescribe it for use during pregnancy. For example, if you have previously taken insulin for type 2 diabetes, your doctor may prescribe metformin with insulin to better control your blood sugar levels.
If you are at higher risk for gestational diabetes, your doctor may also prescribe metformin. Metformin can help reduce this risk. Risk factors for gestational diabetes include being overweight, having diabetes, or having gestational diabetes in previous pregnancies.
One more thing to keep in mind about the benefits of metformin during pregnancy. Some credible sources suggest that women with PCOS who take the drug during pregnancy may have a lower risk of miscarriage.
Taking metformin during pregnancy does not increase the risk of birth defects and other complications for you and the fetus, and taking this medicine before and during pregnancy is safe. Taking metformin while breastfeeding your baby is also safe. Small amounts of the drug may pass into breast milk but do not affect or affect your baby’s development.

Side effects of metformin

Gastrointestinal: diarrhea, bloating, nausea and vomiting
Infectious: Infection
Cardiovascular: Chest pain, hot flashes, palpitations
Skin: Increased sweating
Endocrinology and metabolism: Vitamin B12 deficiency, hypoglycemia
Gastrointestinal: bloating, abdominal pain, abnormal stools, indigestion, heartburn
Central nervous system: chills, dizziness, headache, metallic taste in the mouth
Nervous, musculoskeletal: laxity, muscle pain
Respiratory: Shortness of breath, flu-like symptoms, rhinitis, upper respiratory tract infection

Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea may occur, especially at the beginning of treatment with this drug. To prevent this, take the medicine with or immediately after a meal. Usually after a few days of consumption, your body gets used to the medicine and this complication disappears. However, see your doctor if these symptoms are severe or persist.
In case of diarrhea, use enough water and fluids.
See your doctor if you have an abnormal taste in your mouth, loss of appetite, and persistent abdominal pain.

Rare but important side effects

Your doctor may inform you about important side effects that can occur if you have a problem called lactic acidosis. The risk of this complication is very low, but because it is necessary to treat and treat this condition as soon as possible, in case of symptoms such as nausea, lethargy or severe fatigue, shortness of breath or shortness of breath (shortness of breath), the feeling of smell See your doctor as soon as possible if you have alcohol or rotten fruit in your mouth

Mechanism of action of Metformin

Metformin works by reducing gluconeogenesis and increasing peripheral glucose uptake. Because it is only effective in the presence of endogenous insulin, it is only effective in people whose part of the pancreas is healthy. Metformin is thought to increase the number or strength of insulin binding to cell membrane receptors, especially peripheral receptors.

Contraindications to the use of Metformin

The drug should not be used in cases such as liver and kidney disease, heart disease, susceptibility to lactic acidosis, severe infection, severe burns, surgery, trauma, dehydration, diabetic coma and ketoacidosis.

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