Diclofenac is also used to reduce pain, irritation, swelling and joint dryness in arthritis, gout and other rheumatic diseases, as well as to treat other types of pain such as headache, muscle aches, menstrual cramps, postoperative pain, fever and childbirth.
Mechanism of action Lofedic
Diclofenac is a potent inhibitor of the enzyme cyclooxygenase. The enzyme cyclooxygenase converts arachidonic acid to prostaglandins. There are at least two cyclooxygenase isoforms: Cox-1 and Cox-2. It inhibits the production of prostaglandins and thromboxane by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, thus showing its analgesic and inflammatory effects.
Pharmaceutical forms Lofedic
Diclofenac is used orally, by injection, ointment (topical gel) and suppository.
After intramuscular injection or rectal administration of diclofenac, the drug is rapidly and almost completely absorbed. The maximum plasma concentration of the drug is reached within 10-30 minutes.
Highly (almost 100%) bound to protein.
In the first passage through the liver, it is metabolized and 60% of it enters the circulatory system unchanged. The major active metabolite of diclofenac, 48 hydroxy diclofenac, accounts for about 3% of the activity of the primary drug. The terminal mean life of the drug is about 75 to 105 minutes after a single dose.
About 40-60% of diclofenac is excreted in the urine and the remainder in the bile. More than 90% of the drug is excreted within 72 hours. Moderate renal dysfunction has no effect on unchanged drug excretion but reduces the rate of excretion of metabolites. Liver dysfunction has no effect on diclofenac pharmacokinetics.
prohibited usage Lofedic
- In patients sensitive to aspirin or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
- It should not be used in patients with hepatic porphyria.
- Milk allergy
- Around coronary artery surgery
- In patients with renal, hepatic or cardiac disorders, it should be used with caution and with the least possible amount, while the renal function should be monitored regularly.
- Avoid taking it in patients with active gastric ulcer. Also, patients with a history of ulcers should avoid this drug and in case of gastric injuries, the intestines should be cut.
- It should be used with caution in the elderly as well as people with a history of asthma and allergies.
Possible side effects Lofedic
Gastrointestinal complications may include nausea, diarrhea, and bleeding or gastric ulcer. Allergic reactions, especially angioedema, bronchospasm, and skin rashes, as well as complications such as dizziness, headache, hearing disorders such as tinnitus, and blood in the urine may occur.
Drug Interactions Lofedic
Concomitant use with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors may inhibit the antihypertensive effect of these drugs, and may increase the risk of renal failure and hypertension. Taking quinolones such as ciprofloxacin with diclofenac increases the risk of seizures. The risk of nephrotoxicity increases with concomitant use of cyclosporine and diclofenac. The excretion of lithium and possibly methotrexate is reduced by this drug, their toxicity is increased. Gastrointestinal side effects may include nausea, diarrhea, and occasional bleeding or ulcers.
Risk of heart attack and stroke Lofedic
People with heart problems should stop taking this medicine. This drug can increase the risk of heart attacks and strokes in some patients. This recommendation was made after examining the risks of this drug in Europe. They used it as a painkiller for headaches, back pain and osteoarthritis. Smokers, people with high blood pressure, people with diabetes, as well as people with high blood cholesterol are also advised to consult their doctor before taking diclofenac. Also, the use of this drug can be used as a strong and safe analgesic for other people except those who are at risk.
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