Inflammatory bowel disease

What is inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)?

Inflammatory bowel disease or chronic inflammation of the digestive tract is one of the diseases treated by a gastroenterologist. Intestinal inflammation (IBD: Inflammatory Bowel Disease) is a disease in which the intestines become inflamed for various reasons. This disease sometimes worsens or improves over time. Sometimes this disease remains silent for a while.

In this article, you will get to know the symptoms of intestinal inflammation and learn what is the treatment of intestinal inflammation.

Keep in mind that IBD can only be diagnosed by a gastroenterologist

Inflammatory bowel disease or IBD is a group of diseases that cause inflammation of the wall of the large intestine and small intestine. The most common of these diseases are: ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease.

In order to decide what is the treatment of intestinal inflammation, you must first know the symptoms of intestinal inflammation. In the following, you will learn about the most common symptoms of intestinal inflammation.

Treatment of intestinal inflammation should be done under the supervision of a doctor

Symptoms of intestinal inflammation or symptoms of IBD:

Abdominal cramps and pain are one of the most common symptoms of intestinal inflammation
Diarrhea, which is sometimes bloody, can also be a symptom of intestinal inflammation
The feeling of an urgent need to defecate is a sign of intestinal inflammation
Painful and difficult bowel movements may be a sign of IBD
The presence of pus or mucus in stool is also a symptom of IBD
Nausea and vomiting sometimes indicate inflammatory bowel disease, but it may have various causes
Fever and fatigue are seen in inflammatory bowel disease
Night sweat is also a sign of intestinal inflammation
Weight loss in some cases is a symptom of inflammatory bowel disease
Loss of appetite may be a symptom of intestinal inflammation
Iron deficiency anemia (due to blood loss) is also a symptom of IBD

Can stress be the cause of inflammatory bowel disease?

One of the important factors in aggravating the symptoms of intestinal inflammation is stress. Some sources mention stress as the main cause of intestinal inflammation, but in any case, stress can be very effective in aggravating it. For this reason, it is recommended to patients to reduce stress by doing fun sports and fun activities and thus improve the symptoms of intestinal inflammation.

What is the diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease?

Blood test: measuring the number of blood cells can indicate blood loss or increased activity of the body’s defense system, which can be a sign of colitis. Examination of electrolytes (sodium and potassium), protein, markers of inflammation such as erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) can be effective in diagnosing intestinal inflammation and colitis.

Stool test: the presence of blood in the stool in confirmation and symptoms of microbial, viral or fungal infections can be effective in ruling out inflammatory bowel disease.

Types of endoscopy: To diagnose intestinal inflammation, its cause and severity, it is necessary for an endoscopy specialist to see parts of the digestive system. A variety of endoscope devices are used for this purpose. There are currently four endoscopic procedures:

Upper endoscopy: through the mouth and pharynx, the endoscope tube enters the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum, and a specialist doctor can examine and sample these parts and perform limited surgeries.
Colonoscopy: Other types of endoscopic procedures through the rectum, in which the endoscopic tube enters the colon and large intestine through the anus, and the doctor can perform examinations, sampling, and surgery through it.

Endoscopic capsules: they are slightly larger than normal capsules. These capsules have a camera, battery and transmitter, and the patient swallows them to allow the doctor to examine the entire digestive tract.
Enteroscopy with the help of a balloon: in this method, with the help of a balloon and a long endoscope, the specialist can observe and take samples of the entire large intestine and the end part of the small intestine.
Imaging: with various types of imaging, including barium radiography, MRI, etc., of internal organs, including the intestines, important facts can be obtained in order to make a correct diagnosis.

What are the types of intestinal inflammation or IBD?

Intestinal colitis is divided into several categories according to the place where the disease occurs. Which include:

Ulcerative proctitis: inflammation of the rectum. This type of colitis is sometimes diagnosed with signs of bleeding. Its severity is not high and may improve after some time.
Proctosigmoiditis: inflammation of the rectum and lower colon (sigmoid colon), which is accompanied by bleeding, abdominal cramping and pain.
Left-sided colitis: inflammation of the rectum, sigmoid colon, and descending colon, accompanied by left-sided pain, bleeding, diarrhea, and weight loss.
Pancolitis: usually inflammation of the entire colon, its symptoms: diarrhea, bleeding, fatigue, abdominal cramps and heavy weight loss.
Acute or malignant colitis: very severe and rare inflammation that causes severe pain, profuse diarrhea, bleeding, fever, and inability to eat. The cause of this disorder is unknown.

What is the medicine for intestinal swelling and the treatment of intestinal inflammation?

There are different types of intestinal inflammation pain relievers. Anti-inflammatory drugs aminosalicylates are used to relieve ulcerative colitis; As:

Sulfasalazine or Azulfidine
Olsalazine or Dipentum (olsalazine / Dipentum);
Balsalazide or Colazal (balsalazide/ Colazal);
Mesalamine or Asacol/ Lialda/ Pentasa/ Apriso (mesalamine/ Asacol, Lialda, Pentasa, Apriso). Mesalamine (Mesalazine, Mesalazine)
If the above drugs did not have a good effect for the treatment of intestinal inflammation, corticosteroids are used to quickly reduce the inflammation. Due to its side effects, this drug is not prescribed during the silent period of the disease and is used only in acute conditions for the rapid improvement of the symptoms of intestinal inflammation and the treatment of intestinal inflammation.

Immune system balancing drugs that balance the reactions of the body’s defense system and reduce intestinal inflammation caused by the reaction of the immune system. As :

Azathioprine or Imuran (azathioprine/Imuran);
Methotrexate or Rheumatrex (methotrexate/Rheumatrex);
Mercaptopurine or Purinethol
These drugs are not used in the acute period because they have a long treatment period of several months.

Biological drugs are antibodies that interfere with the activity of some inflammatory proteins, such as:

Infliximab or Remicade (Infliximab/Remicade);
Infliximab-dyyb or Inflectra (infliximab-dyyb/ Inflectra), Remikid biogeneric drug

Anti-TNF drugs: These drugs are anti-TNF: Tumor Necrosis Factor. As:

adalimumab or Humira);
Adalimumab-atto or Amjevita (adalimumab-atto/Amjevita), the biogeneric of Humira
Certolizumab or Cimzia
Biological drugs that control integrins (cell surface proteins that play an important role in cell chemical exchange) are used as an alternative to anti-TNF drugs. These drugs are used in the treatment of Crohn’s disease. As:

Natalizumab or Tysabri
Vedolizumab or Entyvio
A drug that blocks interleukins 12 and 23 (IL-12 and IL-23), such as ustekinumab or Stelara. Interleukins are among the effective proteins of the body’s defense system.


These drugs are used along with other drugs or in cases where an infectious disease has been diagnosed. As:

Ciprofloxacin (CIPRO)
Metronidazole (Flagyl)


It is one of the methods of treating intestinal inflammation. In this method, a part of the intestine is removed or in some cases they have to remove the entire colon. This method is considered as the last solution and they use this method if other types of treatment were not effective.


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