What is hydroxyzine?
Hydroxyzine is an antiallergic drug from the group of hypnotic antihistamines, which is used to reduce skin itching due to allergies.
Contact with allergens, seasonal allergies, insect bites can lead to the release of a chemical called histamine in the human body. The release of histamine in the body is accompanied by symptoms such as red skin spots with itching, sneezing, runny nose, sore throat, redness and itching of the eyes, etc.
By inhibiting the effect of histamine, hydroxyzine helps to reduce allergy symptoms, especially the itching caused by it.
Although it is possible to obtain hydroxyzine from a pharmacy without a doctor’s prescription, it is necessary to pay attention to the following points before preparing and taking it:
If you are pregnant, trying to become pregnant or breastfeeding, inform your doctor so that he can prescribe the appropriate anti-allergic medicine for your condition.
People over 65 years of age are more sensitive to the side effects of this drug and may lead to deep sleep in the person.
If you have a history of liver, kidney, heart, eye problems (glaucoma or glaucoma), prostate problems or any problems with urination, epilepsy, chronic respiratory problems such as asthma and bronchitis, and other cases, be sure to inform your doctor.
If you have a small bowel obstruction (even a mild type), be sure to inform your doctor.
Since this drug can interfere with the functioning of other drugs in the body, it is necessary to provide a list of all the drugs you are taking to your doctor or pharmacist before you start taking it.
How to use Hydroxyzine
Usually, taking this medicine once at night before going to sleep controls the symptoms. However, this drug may be prescribed two to three times a day, depending on the severity of your symptoms.
If you are using the oral form of syrup for your child, ask your doctor or pharmacist exactly how to take the medicine and how to take it. The amount of medicine used for children is calculated according to their age and weight.
If you forget to take a dose of medicine, skip the missed dose and take the next dose according to the schedule. Do not double the amount of medicine at the same time.
You can take the medicine until your symptoms improve and stop the medicine after recovery.
Advice on medicine
Hydroxyzine can cause severe drowsiness and confusion in you. If this happened to you, avoid driving and doing things that require more concentration and caution until the effect of the drug wears off.
Consuming alcohol intensifies the hypnotic side effects of hydroxyzine, so avoid consuming alcohol and alcoholic products during treatment with this medicine.
If you intend to undergo surgery, treatment or certain clinical tests (such as allergy test), inform your doctor about the use of this drug because it is necessary to stop taking anti-allergic drugs for some time before performing these procedures.
During the treatment with this medicine, your body’s sensitivity to light will increase, so avoid being exposed to direct light as much as possible and use sunscreen creams and sunglasses.
Before starting any new medication, inform your doctor or pharmacist about the use of hydroxyzine to avoid drug interactions and side effects.
side effects of Hydroxyzine
Feeling dizzy and sleepy and blurred vision
For a possible headache caused by taking this drug, ask your pharmacist about the right painkiller.
Dry mouth is also one of the symptoms related to the use of this drug, which can be solved with sugar-free gum or candy.
During treatment with this medicine, you may have difficulty urinating. In this case, inform your doctor.
In case of stomach ache and digestive problems, you can reduce these complications by eating light foods and avoiding fatty and spicy foods.
Other complications (uncertain percentage):
Central nervous system: Drowsiness (transient)
Gastrointestinal: dry mouth
Respiratory: respiratory depression (in high doses)
Hydroxyzine drug interactions
General specifications of interactions:
– Intensification of anticholinergic effects
– Intensification of CNS depressant effects
– Reducing the central effects of histamine
– Increase QT interval (depending on conditions)
Uses of hydroxyzine
Hydroxyzine is used in the treatment of anxiety and nervous tension, as a sedative before general anesthesia, to reduce the side effects of drug and alcohol withdrawal, to control allergic itching including chronic urticaria, and to control nausea and vomiting.
Mechanism of action of hydroxyzine
Histamine H1 receptor antagonist
– Weak to moderate antihistaminic effects (by competing with histamine to be placed on the receptor in the cells of the digestive system, blood vessels and respiratory tracts)
– Moderate to strong anticholinergic and antinausea effects
– Bronchodilator and skeletal muscle relaxant effects
– Analgesic effects
Start of effect: 15-30 minutes
Relief of redness and hives: 4-12 hours
Relief of redness and hives: 2-36 hours
Itch relief: 1-12 hours
Sleeping: 4-6 hours
Serum peak: 1-2 hours
Metabolism: hepatic (to various metabolites; such as cetirizine)
Children and adolescents (1-14 years) 4-11 hours (with age, the half-life becomes longer.)
Adults 20 hours
Seniors 29 hours
Liver failure 37 hours
The use of this drug is strictly prohibited at the beginning of pregnancy and it is classified as group X. It may cause death or organ failure of the fetus.
Category X interactions (avoid):
Aclidinium, azelastine (nasal), bromperidol, simtropium, eloxadoline, glycopyrrolate (oral inhalation), glycopyrronium (topical), ipratropium (oral inhalation), levosulpiride, orphenadrine, oxatomide, oxomazine, paraldehyde, pitolisant, potassium chloride, potassium citrate, rufenacin, Thalidomide, tiotropium, omeclidinium
Reducing the effects of drugs by hydroxyzine:
Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, benzylpenicilloylpolylysine, betahistine, gastrointestinal agents (prokinetics), hyaluronidase, itopride, levosulpiride, nitroglycerin, pitolisant, secretin
Reducing the effects of hydroxyzine by drugs:
Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, amphetamines
Increasing the effects of drugs by hydroxyzine:
Ethanol, amzinium, anticholinergics, azelastine (nasal), barbiturates, blonanserin, brexanolone, buprenorphine, simtropium, clozapine, CNS depressants, eloxadoline, flunitrazepam, glucagon, glycopyrrolate (oral inhalation), haloperidol, meperidine, methotrexate, metyrosine , mirabegron, opioid agonists, orphenadrine, oxycodone, paraldehyde, pyribidil, potassium chloride, potassium citrate, pramipexole, drugs that prolong the QT interval (highest risk), ramosterone, rofenacin, ropinirol, rotigotine, SSRIs, suvrexant, thalidomide, diuretics Thiazides and pseudo-thiazides, tiotropium, topiramate, zolpidem
Increasing the effects of hydroxyzine by drugs:
Aclidinium, alizapride, amantadine, products containing botulinum toxin, brimonidine (topical), bromopride, bromperidol, cannabidiol, cannabis, chloral betaine, chlormethiazole, chlorphenesin carbamate, dimindene (topical), doxylamine, dronabinol, droperidol, sketamine, glycopyrronium (topical) , ipratropium (oral inhalation), kava kava, lemborexant, lofexidine, magnesium sulfate, methotremprazine, metoclopramide, mianserin, minocycline (systemic), nabilone, oxatomide, oxomazine, prampanel, pramlintide, rufinamide, sodium oxybate, tetrahydrocannabinol, tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, trimperazine , Omclidinium.
Interference with food
has not been stated.
Warnings of Hydroxyzine
1- The patient’s creatinine level should be evaluated at the beginning of the treatment.
2- Symptom relief, state of consciousness and blood pressure level of the patient should be monitored.
3- It is necessary to check the other drugs used by the patient so that, if necessary, the dosage can be adjusted or alternative treatment can be used.
– The side effects of the drug on the level of consciousness should be pointed out to the patient and advised to avoid driving or doing tasks that require high precision.
– It is necessary to take necessary precautions to prevent the patient from falling (such as placing a protective fence on the patient’s bed).
1- In case of drowsiness, refrain from doing things that require alertness.
2- There is a possibility of dry mouth.
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