What is amantadine?
Amantadine is a class of antiviral drugs. Amantadine tablets are used to treat the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. Parkinson’s is a nervous system disease that causes difficulty in movement, muscle control, and balance. Amantadine is usually prescribed together with L-dopa in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease.
Amantadine tablets are also effective in the treatment of movement disorders (dyskinesia) caused by the side effects of Parkinson’s drugs. Amantadine MS, along with Modafinil and Methylphenidate, are clinically used more than any other drug in the treatment of MS (Multiple Sclerosis) related fatigue.
Amantadine is also used to prevent and treat infections caused by influenza type A. Amantadine penetrates into the RNA of cells susceptible to this type of influenza and inhibits their M2 protein. Other types of influenza are not treated with amantadine tablets because they have a different M2 protein. It should be noted that the flu vaccine is considered a better treatment than this medicine. Amantadine is also sometimes used in the treatment of neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS), cocaine withdrawal syndrome, and resistant hiccups.
Amantadine has no effect on colds or other viral infections. Amantadine is also used to treat drug-induced brain and brainstem reactions. Another important point is that if this drug is taken within one to two days after the onset of the disease, it will reduce the time of fever and other systemic symptoms.
It is better to consult a neurologist to learn about Amantadine, its uses, how to use it, side effects and drug interactions.
Amantadine or viral and coronavirus(COVID-19) pills
Recently, researches have been conducted in the field of reducing the effectiveness of this drug for the corona virus, and some evidence shows positive results in this field. One of these researches has been conducted in Mexico, which shows that 15 people who took this medicine developed IgG antibodies against the corona virus after 14 days.
How it works?
Amantadine is part of a group of drugs that improve movement problems by increasing dopamine levels in certain parts of the body. Amantadine capsules both increase dopamine and decrease its reabsorption. It also stimulates norepinephrine.
The way to absorb this medicine is through the gas device. The capsule also enters saliva and nasal secretions and has the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. Amantadine tablets can enter breast milk during breastfeeding.
Amantadine works against type A influenza by inhibiting the spread of the virus in the body. Approximately 67% of amantadine capsules are transported in plasma by proteins, which includes a concentration of about 0.1 to 2 micrograms.
The half-life of amantadine is 10 to 14 hours, which reaches 7 to 10 days in cases of kidney dysfunction. 90% of absorbed drug is excreted through urine. If the amantadine capsule is used as a serum, it will be absorbed by the body in 2 to 4 hours. Amantadine capsules start working 48 hours after consumption (in Parkinson’s disease, the effect of amantadine capsules is about two weeks after continuous use). Amantadine is well absorbed.
Amantadine comes in capsules called Gocovri and a liquid form for oral use that is slow-release and usually taken once or twice a day.
A common starting dose of amantadine is 100 mg.
The dosage depends on the prescription of the neurologist.
The effectiveness or lack of effectiveness of amantadine for people under the age of 18 has not yet been proven.
Slow-release tablets are taken once a day at bedtime.
It is better to eat them at certain times every day.
Make sure to follow the directions on the label and ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain anything you don’t understand.
Take the medicine exactly as prescribed; No less and no more.
Swallow the amantadine capsule whole and avoid dividing, chewing, crushing it.
Avoid taking the capsule with food separately because it may cause all the medicine to be released at the same time and this increases the risk of side effects.
If you have trouble swallowing the capsule, it is better to open it and sprinkle the entire contents into a teaspoon of a soft food such as applesauce and mix it with it and swallow it quickly without chewing.
If you use the slow-release capsule, the empty pill can be seen in the feces after use, which is not dangerous for the body.
If you are using amantadine for Parkinson’s disease, your doctor may start you on a low dose and increase the dose over time.
It is better to consult a neurologist to learn about amantadine, its uses, how to use it, side effects and drug interactions.
Avoid stopping the medication on your own.
If you suddenly stop taking amantadine, you may have complications such as fever, dizziness, changes in mental status, severe muscle stiffness, extreme excitement, anxiety, delirium, hallucinations, depression, experiencing states like the thoughts of people with paranoid personality disorder, speech disorder. and decrease the level of consciousness.
Dosage of amantadine tablets
Consumption in adults
Cases related to the treatment of extrapyramidal symptoms caused by drugs:
100 mg twice a day
If needed, up to 300 mg per day in divided doses.
Items related to the treatment of Parkinson’s disease:
The usual dose as monotherapy is 100 mg twice a day.
If needed, with close supervision 400 mg in divided doses.
If needed, increase the dose to 100 mg 2 times a day.
Consumption in elderly people:
The amount of consumption will be adjusted based on the functioning of the kidneys.
Drug tolerance happens better in some people who take a certain amount in two doses.
Dosage in kidney patients:
1- Keratin transparency from 30 to 50 ml per minute:
200 mg once a day
Then use 100 mg per day.
2- Keratin transparency up to 29 ml per minute:
200 mg once a day
Then 100 mg should be used every other day.
3- Keratin transparency less than 15 ml per minute:
200 mg should be used once every 7 days.
200 mg should be used once every 7 days.
5- Items related to the treatment of type A influenza:
Adults (13 to 65 years):
200 mg every day in divided doses
Adults (over 65 years old):
100 mg orally every day
6- Children (1 to 9 years old):
4.4 to 8.8 mg/kg, daily in 2 to 3 divided doses
The maximum daily dose is 150 mg.
Children (9 to 12 years):
100 mg daily in 2 doses
The dose of amantadine in children who are older than 10 years and weigh 40 kg or more is the same as the adult dose.
Two important points
1: Patients who have underlying underlying diseases or people who are using other high-dose Parkinson’s drugs should start taking amantadine at a dosage of 100 mg per day.
2: The interval between doses should not be less than 4 hours.
Common side effects:
nausea and vomiting
Difficulty falling asleep and staying asleep
Seeing strange dreams
Uncontrollable muscle stiffness
Change in the way you walk
Swelling of the joints
Dystonia (involuntary contractions)
You can use hard chocolate or ice chips, chewing gum or saliva substitutes to reduce dry mouth.
Dizziness and light-headedness when you stand up too quickly are common at the beginning of this medication or when the dose is increased. It is better to get up slowly to prevent this.
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